|Főoldal Kultúra Vallás Oktatás Turizmus|
The tree of life of the Moldovian Hungarians
Around 375 : The Hsziungnuk, or Huns from Asia, were the leaders of several nomad tribes in Middle Asia between the 3rd century BC and the fourth century AD. According to the scientists, these people were the forefathers of the Huns.
Around 670 : Huge changes took place on steppes on the north territories of the Black Sea. The Onogur - Bulgarian empire broke up, the Hungarians came to occupy the empty places. The so called Etelköz, had its border the Szeret river on the south.
After 896 : In the 9th century, which is nowadays Moldova`s teritory, included the Etelköz, from where the Hungarians had their origin. It is proved, that after the Hungarian Conquest some Hungarians were left to defend the borders, these people were the Moldovian Huns.
1071 : From the beginning of the 10th century, and till 1071, Moldova was part of Besenyőország, and from 1071 to 1241 belonged to the Kun Country. The Romanians are first mentioned as Vlachs according to the documents.
1211 : Endre the II, Hungarian king, to defend the borders on both sides of the East Carphatians, settled down German knights.
1225 : The king chased the German knights out, because they tried to rebel. In their place came the first group of Hungarians to defend the borders.
1227 : The Kun people became Christian, and with the help of the Hungarian church and king came into being the Roman Catholic Kun Episcopate as part of the Hungarian Episcopate. For good functioning, priests, ordinary people, soldiers were settled down in Moldova.
1342 : Nagy Lajos, Hungarian king gave the name of Kara Bogdania to the feudal territories to the eastern part from the Carphatians. The name Moldova appeared later.
1371 : The foundation of Roman Catholic Episcopate from Szeret.
Around 1400 : The Csángó name appeared first in the form of Gorghium Chango.
1436 – 1460 : During a half of century thousands of Hussites, mainly Hungarians came to Moldova escaping from the fury of the inquisitors.
They founded three villages together with the town Husz as well as on the riverbank of Dnyeszter the town called Csöbörcsök.
1466 : In the town of Tatros, the Hussite named György Németi translated parts of the Bible into Hungarian, found in Codex Munich.
1457 – 1504 : Great Steven, the leader of Moldova entered several times Transylvania. The Hungarian prisoners were settled down in Moldova.
1479 – 1493 : Because of István Báthory`s cruelty, many Székely people settled down in Moldova.
1534 – 1572 : The Franciscan church from Csíksomlyó gave priests to the Moldovian church.
1562 : Many serfs from Transylvania settled down in Moldova hoping a better life.
1571 : The priest from Tatros made more than 2 thousand Hungarian Hussites near Husz and Románvásár to become catholics again.
1574 – 1591 : Petru Schiopu, a chancellor in Moldova mentioned 20 thousand of Hungarians in Moldova.
1597 : The Episcopate from Arges was ruined by the Mongols and bishop Quitrini moved to Bacau and from that time it is mentioned the Episcopate of Bacau.
1600 – 1606 : During Movila Jeremiás leadership, Bernárd Querini the bishop of Moldova numbered 1,591 mainly Hungarian Catholic families with 10,704 souls, living in 15 towns and 16 villages. He explained the diminishing people by the coming of the Mongol herds. Starting from this period, almost 200 years the Episcopate from Bacau will belong to the Polish church.
1607 : From the documents of the parliament in Marosvásárhely : “ Because of the country’s poorness, destroying, the poor families run mainly to Moldova.”
1612 : The documents of the parliament of Szeben ordered : “ the guarding of roads leading to Moldova” saying that” if they cross with cattles, wives the poors from Transylvania , do not let them cross but return them to the landlords to whom they belong.”
1606 : According to a letter on 12th of May, Movila Jeremiás gave Szabófalva and Berendfalva to the Seculi orthodox church, so the Hungarians became serfs.
1622 : Moldova is called by the Pope a missionary territory, took out from the order of the Hungarian church and put it under the control of “ Propaganda de Fide”
1634 – 1653 : Vasile Lupu, Moldovian leader asked from Rome a Catholic priest for 12 thousand souls.
1641 : Peter Diodat noted down the Hungarian villages in Moldova and their inhabitants.
1644 : Bishop Marcus Bandinus and Pál Beke Jesuit priests visited the Hungarians in Csöbörcsök.
1646 : Marcus Bandinus mentioned 5,577 catholics in Moldova.
1648 : A more detailed description made by Marcus Bandinus was sent to the Saint Congregation.
1650 : The death of Marcus Bandinus, the writer of the Codex Bandinus.
1671 : The people from five villages wrote a letter to the Saint Congragation that the catholic missionairs are cruel, and if they don’t solve the problem, they will obey to the orthodox church.
1680 : Because of the Mongol invasion, a lot of villagers came back to Transylvania, but a part of them returned after the invasion.
1706 : Ferencz Rákóczi the II, because of the Hungarian demands, sent a Hungarian priest in Moldova.
1707 : From Rabutin, Austrian general of war, a lot of Székely soldiers fighting for freedom in Hungary, flee to Moldova. Some of the noblemen went with them, too. They came back only in 1711.
1764 : On the early morning of 7th of January, the Székely people gathered in Csíkmadéfalva were murdered by the Austrian guns. Those who survived moved to Moldova. Some of them went to Bukovina, founding 5 villages, the others settled down among the Hungarians in Moldova. Here are the names of the villages founded by them: Csíkfalva, Lábnyik, Frumósza, Lészped, Pusztina, Szerbek.
1767 : Péter Zöld, the priest from Csíkdelne, visited the Moldovian Hungarians and made a detailed presentation to Ignác Batthányi, the Bishop of Transylvania.
1781 : Péter Zöld visited again the Moldovian Hungarians. He mentioned the following about the priests in the region: „ The missionaires, the priests, are all Italian, who can’t speak neither Romanian nor Hungarian, and the 9 Hungarian churches are served miserably.”
1782 : Csángó Hungarians the first mentioning as ethnical group, according to Péter Zöld.
1807 : In Jászvásár, the Austrian chancellor, Hammer, told in Vien, the datas of the catholics in this region: 10 settlements, 4,182 families, 21,307 inhabitants.
1813: In Forrófalva, János Incze Petrás, the minorit priest was born, later becoming priest of Pusztina and Klézse, he gathered the Csángó songs traditions and made it public. He died in Klézse in 1886.
1827 : Consul Lippa, coming after Hammer, was mentioning about 50 thousand Hungarians.
1836 : Elek P. Gegő’s visiting Moldova and making an accurate description.
1844 – 1845 : János Jerney historian, archeologistmade researches on the Hungarians in Etelköz.
1851 : The Moldovian church is mentioning 22 churches, from which 16 are served in Hungarian. But also we can find out, that these 22 churches meant 208 settlements because one church could serve several villages.
1859 : According to the Romanian statistics, The number of the Hungarians were 37,825.
1866 : Josef Salandri, the leadre of the catholic mission, in Moldova published a bilingual, Hungarian- Romanian cathecism in Jászvásár, to make easier the servings for the priests.
1868 : Jákó Fülöp Imets and Ferenc Kovács, Hungarian priests visited Moldova.
1875 : According to the statistics, the number of the Romano catholics are 58,809 souls.
1884 : The mission in Moldova ended, and the Roman Catholic Episcopate came into being in Jászvásár.
1886 : The Romanian government agreed with the new episcopate, but with one condition : to turn the Csángó Hungarians into Romanians.
1889 : In a letter written by Camilli, a priest in Jászvásár: „ We ordered that in churches, the prayings and the services should be held only in Romanian and no other language.”
1898 : In Bucharest appeared the Big Geographic Dictionary of Romania in which we can find the following: „ The majority of Bákó county are Romanian... but we can find old agricultural settlements that are of Hungarian origin and they keep their language and faith... There are hundreds and hundreds of families in different settlements in which none of the inhabitants can speak Romanian, like Forrófalva, Klézse, etc.”
1899 : According to the Romanian statistics the number of the Hungarians in Moldova were 24,276.
1900 : The church is mentioning 64,601 Roman catholics.
1905 : In the book of the Romanian Academy, appeared in Bucharest, Radu Rosetti : About the Hungarians and the Roman Catholic Episcopate in Moldova, he mentioned 50 – 60 thousand Hungarians, remarking: „ When the Modova state came into being in 1342, there were a massive Hungarian population settled near the Szeret and Tatros rivers.”
1911 : Mitica Demeter Lakatos, Csángó poet was born in Szabófalva. He died in 1974.
1912 : Romanian statistics mentioned 97,771 Roman catholics.
1914 : In Klézse, György Duma was born, who from the mid of 1940s was the representative of the Hungarian People’s Union, the only Hungarian representative in Bucharest of the National Council. The chairman at that time of the Hungarian People’s Union was Gyárfás Kurkó.
1929 : The first visit in Moldova of Pál Péter Domokos.
1930 : Romanian statistics showed that the Roman catholics were 109,953 souls from which 23,894 were Hungarians.
1932 : Pál Péter Domokos’s second visit to Moldova with László Laczkó.
1932 : Gábor Lükö’s research in Moldova.
1938 : Was born Mihály Perka in Szabófalva who was a teacher and struggled for the opportunity to use again the Hungarian language. In 1985 he founded the first Csángó Museum and after the Revolution, in 1990 he tought Hungarian to the Hungarian children at school. After a while, the Romanian government and church forbade that.
1938 : Lines from a local announcement : „ We, in Bákó county, the mayor of the Ferdinand village, according to the law made in Bákó on the3rd of May 1938, with number 7,621, we order to all the people, that no other language is permitted, only Romanian. The priests and cantors are forbidden to sing in other language than Romanian.Everyone will be severely punished who is not obeying this rule.”
1940 : The five Hungarian villages from Bukovina together with about 1 thousand Csángó Hungarians were settled down in Hungary and today they live in Baranya county in Egyházaskozár, Mekényes, Szárász settlements.
1941 : According to the Romanian statistics the number of the Roman catholics were 9,352 the Hungarians 8,523.
1943 : Márton Demse was born in Somoska, Klézse. He finished school in Székelyudvarhely, then he was a teacher back at home. Because of his work, the Securitate was after him, and he remained without job. Then he worked on a locomotive, and later settled down in Hungary. He wrote several poems, literary texts, published several books.
1946 – 1947 : In more than 100 Csángó settlements the authorities let the teachers to teach Hungarian. But after a few years, they drew back their decision closing the Hungarian school in Lészped in 1959, where Zoltán Kallós taught.
1955 : In Klézse, András István Duma was born, he is a Csángó poet and the leader of the Szeret – Klézse Foundation
1956 : Ilona Nyisztor was born in Pusztina, she is a folk singer, nursery school teacher, the leader of the Csángó House in Pusztina.
1956 : Dr. Tinka Nyisztor was born, she is a researcher in Csángó gastronomical culture, the leader of the Szent István Organisation in Pusztina.
1976 : Felicia Gábor, Csángó writer was born. Her book is also a living history.
1977 : According to the Romanian statistics, the Roman catholics were 3,276 souls.
1978 : In Magyarfalu, Laura Iancu was born. She is a writer, poet and ethnographer.
1985 : Mihály Perka founded the first Csángó Hungarian ethnographic collection, which also like a museum, because it represents the Csángó Hungarian culture in this region.
1986 : Márton Benedek, born in Trunk, was a Csángó Hungarian doctor ( 1931-1986) died mysteriously because of his political belief. People in the village said that the fountain in front of his house and his tomb had a scent of rose.
March 1990 : In Sepsiszentgyörgy, the Moldovian Csángó Hungarian Union was founded mainly to bring up Csángó learned people.
September 1990 : In the Attila József school, with the leading of Erzsébet Borbáth, started the teaching of the Csángó children in a regular manner, to allow them to reach up the other students in knowledge.
27th September 1990 : Was founded in Hungary the Demeter Lakatos Csángó Hungarian Cultural Organization, gathering those who are interested in the Csángó culture and tradition.
1991 : More than 1 thousand Csángós from Moldova visited Budapest and met with the Pope, János Pál the II on the Heroes Square and in the Szent István Basilica with Péter Pál Domokos, the apostol of the Csángó people.
1992 : According to the Romanian statistics, the number of the Roman catholics were 240,038 and the Hungarians 3,098. The abnormality of the datas showed its political background.
1990 – 2010 : From the early 1990s till nowadays, a lot of Moldovian Hungarians went abroad mainly in the Neo Latin countries and in all parts of the world. In the Romanian statistics they are mentioned as Romanians. But according to their religion they are Roman catholics, the adults know Hungarian but the young people learn the language of that country and settle down abroad.
December 1992 : In Csíkszereda, Pál Péter Domokos Foundation was founded to help the Csángó students in Transylvania and Hungary to learn in Hungarian.
1994 : In Gyímesfelsőlok started to function the Árpádházi Szent Erzsébet Roman catholic school, where several hundreds of Csángó students had the possibility to learn in Hungarian.
1996 : The Csángó Hungarians Union moved to Bákó its residency.
1999 : The Szeret – Klézse Foundation was founded, the first Hungarian civil organization registered in Bákó county. With the foundation’s help started the teaching of Hungarian out of school, and the János Incze Petrás Museum was built few years ago. Out of school Hungarian lessons, because the authorities don’t let the teachers to teach in schools, even at the parents’ claims.
2001 : The Csángó Hungarian Union from Moldova started a teaching programme, which nowadays includes 25 settlements with 1,600 Csángó students, its aim was to make possible inside or outside the school the teaching of the Hungarian language.
August 2002 : Was founded in Neamt county in Románvásár town, by Margit and Mihály Perka and Bogdán Turlui the Szeret Cultural organization.
2002 – 2009 : Several Csángó Hungarian civil organizations were founded like Via Spei Youth Organization, The Szent István Organization from Pusztina and the Phoenix Cultural foundations from Forrófalva, etc.
This is the tree of life of the Moldovian Hungarians, that must be protected because it represents one of the strangest and valuable branches of the humanity.